1901 Mechanic Introduction: Reinforcement and Morale

Post by: Grant Rodiek

As I design and draft the rules for 1901: Invasion of America, I’d like to slowly introduce and explain the new mechanics. The first mechanics I’m excited about are Reinforcements and Morale. As a teaser, some of the future mechanic articles will be:

  • Creating synergy between the Navy and the Army players (it’s a team game, with each teammate focusing on Navy or Army).
  • Leader-based Action system and evolving the Actions.
  • Designing the new map and how fictional (Empire) differs from historical.
  • Evolving from one-off Battles and Tactics to more strategic maneuvers and behaviors.
  • Victory conditions. 1901 won’t be an area control game.

In Empire, players had the option to discard cards at the start of every turn for the cards’ reinforcement values. This is the game’s core mechanic — do I use the card for Reinforcements or a powerful Tactic? Or, do I hold onto it for something in the future? This made sense in Empire, but I didn’t think it would make sense in 1901. Why? The new game is based closely on reality and is more of a simulation (though I’m cautious of using that term). It seemed strange that with a good draw the American Army could swell to huge numbers on the first turn. Or that the Germany Army, which has to transit across the Atlantic ocean, could suddenly triple in size.

The new game needed a new mechanic. Here’s the gist of what I’m thinking:

  • Players begin every game with a set number of Units. I’d like to add some variance on where they are placed (possibly player choice?).
  • The game will last a set number of Rounds (like Empire). This is both to control the length and flow of the game. I leaned on Rounds for Scoring in my previous game and I intend to lean on them again, but in a lot of new ways.
  • Reinforcements will be tuned to occur in a set amount at the start of every round. So, round 5 you may get 10 new Units. Note that this is ONLY for the Army. The Navy will not grow in size over the course of the game. This is a short war and naval ships take time to build, outfit, and crew.
  • The first phase of every round will be Reinforcements. Players will simultaneously add Units to a muster area.
  • The Reinforcement sum can be modified by Morale. If your Morale is good,  you’ll receive more Reinforcements. If it’s bad? Fewer. You can even LOSE Units already on the board!

This Morale component is really exciting for me. I hope it’s one of the key strategic components of the game. You’ll need to keep your Morale high and take risks to improve it, but also take risks to weaken your opponents’ Morale. Morale will be represented by a simple track on the board. If your Reinforcement for the round says 5 and you’re at 3 Morale, you’ll get 8 Units. Simple.

Morale is an abstraction of, well, Morale. Troops fight better when they are well-fed, believe victory is close, and believe in their mission and leaders. Troops fight poorly when hungry, abused, or in a foreign land for a bad cause. Morale can lead to outright troop loss with desertion, cowardice, and more.

Morale can be modified in a few ways. If you win a Battle, Morale increases. Lose a battle? Or get harassed from sabotage? Morale decreases. Staff Orders and Strategies (no longer Tactics) will directly affect Morale, so you will be forced to choose between killing Units off the board, or weakening Morale in the long term.

There can also be other environmental elements. For example, if the Americans sink a German convoy transporting German soldiers, that will hurt Morale. Technically, you’re outright killing/capturing troops. But, to keep this simple and streamlined, that will affect Morale.

I can also leverage leaders like the Kaiser or Theodore Roosevelt to inspire the troops and improve Morale. What if it was your strategy all along to weaken my Morale such that I waste and action using T. Roosevelt to boost Morale? Instead of, oh, forcing a treaty or something? Who knows!

In summary, as the game progresses your Army will grow. If your Morale is high, it’ll grow larger. If it’s low, it’ll grow more slowly, or decline. Managing your Morale and weakening your opponents’ will be a key component to the game and one of the biggest reasons to take risks to win the war.


1901 Rules Introduction

Post by: Grant Rodiek

I think it’s important to lay out the premise for my new war game. In order for it to make sense, be interesting, and compelling, I need to spend a little more time than usual setting the stage. Here’s my first draft. Thoughts? I’m currently calling the game 1901: Invasion of America.

At the beginning of the 20th century the world is filled with tension. The Great Powers of Europe and the upstart United States of America have begun a frantic arms-race of naval ship building to maintain control of their distant global territories. The arms race largely results in saber rattling and heated diplomacy, yet conflicts flare frequently around the globe.

In 1898, the United States and Spain fight a brief war that results in the United States taking hold of the former Spanish colonies of Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam. In 1899, Chinese Nationalists incite the Boxer Rebellion, which causes 8 nations to form an alliance to bring a return to foreign domination of the Chinese homeland. In 1899, the British begin a long, bloody conflict to bring the Boers in line with their South African colonies.

These colonies are worth fighting for, or so the Great Powers think, for they provide distant resupply stations for their fleets, trading partners for goods, and most of all, prestige worthy of an empire. America is uncertain of her entry onto the global stage. Some of her leaders, such as Theodore Roosevelt, revel in the glory of empire. Yet, many within the country feel that America’s longstanding tradition of isolation should be continued.

Kaiser Wilhelm II of the German Empire is dissatisfied with Germany’s meager colonies. Germany’s standing army of 500,000 is the finest and most disciplined in the world and her fleet is second only to the British Empire’s (though, a distant second). Wilhelm, brash and full of Prussian confidence, believes America is ill-deserving of her newly won colonies and, most importantly, ill-prepared to defend them.

The Kaiser may be right. The American army, still not fully equipped for the 20th century, is deeply committed to ending the Filipino Insurrection in their newly acquired territory. The remains of the American army are on garrison duty in Cuba or on distant outposts in the American west watching over the long-subdued Native Americans. The American Navy, which is quickly modernizing, is also scattered and not yet prepared for a full-scale global conflict. Worst of all, William McKinley, the 25th President of the United States, is assassinated by an anarchist in early September of 1901. The young Theodore Roosevelt is now the President.

The Kaiser decides that his time to attack is now. He orders his General Staff to enact plans many thought purely hypothetical.

The date is October 1, 1901. Without warning, a fleet of the German Imperial Navy has entered New York harbor and has begun disembarking troops. It is the intent of the German Empire to hold the eastern seaboard hostage. The Kaiser’s demands are simple:

  • America must relinquish her colonies to the German Empire
  • America must relinquish her Navy to the German Empire

America has been invaded. Surprise favors the Germans, who are well-trained and finely armed. Will American resilience be sufficient to repel the invaders and forcefully defend her right to be a Great Power?

In 1901: Invasion of America, two teams of players will control the Imperial Germany Navy and Army invasion force and the American Navy and Army.